Cellular therapy (CT) is the transplantation of human cells to replace or repair damaged tissue and/or cells. With new technologies, innovative products, and limitless imagination, many different types of cells may be used as part of a therapy or treatment for a variety of diseases and conditions. Some of the cells that may be used include hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cells (HSC), skeletal muscle stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and pancreatic islet cells.
While the research is evolving, various cell types will be developed into treatments as novel cell therapies and studied for potential applications. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (also called bone marrow transplant) is the most frequently used cell therapy and is used to treat a variety of blood cancers and hematologic conditions. Potential applications of cell therapies include treating cancers, autoimmune disease, urinary problems, and infectious disease, rebuilding damaged cartilage in joints, repairing spinal cord injuries, improving a weakened immune system, and helping patients with neurological disorders.